Literary Links

July/August 2001


Good News and Announcements

July 18-July 22, 2001--RWA 21st Annual National Conference in New Orleans, LA at the Sheraton New Orleans. Join RWA for Books, Blues & Bourbon Street. If you can't make the entire conference, be sure to stop in for the Literacy Autographing and meet your favorite authors on Wednesday, July 18, 2001 from 5:30 to 8:30 p.m. All proceeds go to literacy foundations. This event is open to the public, so tell all your friends.  For more information and registration forms, see the RWA National web site at

July 18, 2001--The Chicago-North Chapter of RWA will announce the winners of their third annual Fire & Ice contest at the RWA National conference this evening. Stay tuned to the Chicago-North web site to find out who wins! Click Here!

July 19, 2001--The Golden Network Chapter of RWA will announce the winners of their Golden Pen Contest at the RWA National conference this evening. At that time, the Golden Network will also be awarding its newly-published authors their Alumni status certificates. Click here to see who wins!

NEW RWA CHAPTER!--It's official!  The historical writers of RWA spoke, and the result is a new RWA chapter--Hearts Through History--dedicated entirely to the historical writer.  Whatever era you write about, this chapter is for you.  For more information, visit their new web site (under construction).  Michelle Hoppe, Literary Liaisons president, is pleased to announce her association with this group.  She will be the Special Interest group leader for the Victorian Era. Be sure to check them out.


New On Literary Liaisons

There are many new additions to Literary Liaisons. After reading about them below, check them out on the web site.

Author Links:

Myrna Mackenzie




20 Master Plots (And How to Build Them) by Ronald B. Tobias

From Dreams to Discovery by Joan Mazza, M.S.

The Great Stink of London: Sir Joseph Bazalgette and the Cleansing of the Victorian Metropolis by Stephen Halliday and Adam Hart-Davis

The Lonely Empress: A Biography of Elizabeth of Austria by Joan Haslip

The Rise of the Nouveaux Riches: Style and Status in Victorian and Edwardian Architecture by J. Mordaunt Cook

Featured Title

Descriptionary by Marc McCutcheon


The Video Library

Jane Eyre



RWA Chapters On-line

CAMEO Romance Writers

Hearts Through History Romance Writers

Houston Bay Area

Romance Authors of the Heartland (RAH)


Researching the Romance

20 Master Plots (And How to Build Them) by Ronald B. Tobias

From Dreams to Discovery by Joan Mazza, M.S.

The Great Stink of London: Sir Joseph Bazalgette and the Cleansing of the Victorian Metropolis by Stephen Halliday and Adam Hart-Davis

The Lonely Empress: A Biography of Elizabeth of Austria by Joan Haslip

The Rise of the Nouveaux Riches: Style and Status in Victorian and Edwardian Architecture by J. Mordaunt Cook


Writers' Resources Online


Archaic Medical terms

Bank of England

BBC Online--History

British Heritage Magazine

American Civil War Collections

The Ladies: A Journal of the Court, Fashion and Society

Renaissance Magazine

Royal Residences




Feature Article 

Manners For Women--Part Two--Courtship and Marriage

by Michelle J. Hoppe

It matters not whether a lady has a title in order to be called a gentlewoman.  

Rather, a lady is identified by her behavior.  Manners are a compound of spirit and form, and should be part of the education of every person of whatever calling or station in life.  They know no social boundaries.  True courtesy is the basis of all social conduct and can be learned by all.  "Kindness of heart, of nobleness and of courage it true politeness of manner."

So what, then is a gentlewoman? And how does this translate into manners? Let's start at the beginning....


Courtship is the prelude to every girl's dream of marriage and family.  Therefore, she should not enter into any relationship lightly.  Her entire future rests upon the gentleman she chooses as her suitor.  Her are some things a young woman should keep in mind.

A young lady should not allow special attentions from anyone to whom she is not especially attracted. First, she may cause injury to a gentleman who is serious in his pursuit, and second, she may drive away desirable gentlemen because they think she is already in a relationship. 

No well-bred lady should too eagerly receive the attentions of a gentleman no matter how much she admires him.  Nor should she be so reserved as to altogether discourage him.  

A young man should ask permission of the parents to pay addresses to their daughter before courting her.  A gentleman is free to withdraw his attentions without serious injury to the lady as long as an engagement has not been announced.  A gentleman should also ask the consent of the girl's parents before offering himself in marriage.

While it is the prerogative of a man to propose, a woman may accept or refuse his offer.  A lady of tact will exercise her prerogative before her suitor makes an offer so he does not humiliate himself with a proposal that may result in a refusal.  No woman should ever encourage a man to make a proposal which she must refuse.

It is very presumptuous of a gentleman to propose on too brief an acquaintance, and any lady who would accept a gentleman at first sight would hardly make a good wife.  Love alone should not be a foundation on which to base a marriage.  There should be thorough acquaintanceship and a certain knowledge of harmony of tastes and temperament before matrimony is considered.

Parents should keep a close watch on their daughters throughout the courtship to make certain the gentleman is suitable for their daughter.

The Engagement

It is usual to allow a short time to elapse before an engagement is announced, except to the most intimate friends of both parties.  This is a precaution against the disagreeables of broken engagements.  Once the affair becomes more certain, the mother of the engaged girl should host a dinner party, at which time the fiancé is introduced to the friends of the family.

When the engagement has become an accepted fact in both families, the bride-elect writes her friends and tells them about it.  Her mother (or herself if she is motherless) writes to the elders in the family.  With distant acquaintances, it is not necessary to write until the day has been fixed upon.

Once a woman is engaged, she should be tender, assiduous and unobtrusive.  He should be kind and polite to the sisters of his betrothed and friendly toward her brothers. An engaged woman should forego all flirtations, though it is not necessary to cut herself off from all association with the opposite sex, as she may still have friends and acquaintances.  She must, however, conduct herself in a manner so as not to give offense.

A lady should not be too demonstrative of her affection during the days of her engagement.  Over-demonstrations are not pleasant to remember should the man fail to become her husband.  

If an engagement must be broken, for whatever reason may render the marriage an unhappy one, it should be done by letter.  A lady can express herself more clearly in a letter than in a personal meeting.  The letter should be accompanied by portraits, letters or gifts that were received during the engagement.  Such letters should be acknowledged by the gentleman in a dignified manner.

The Wedding

This part of the courtship is an article in and of itself as far as manners and dress.  For more detail, see the articles on Victorian Weddings.   


Home is the woman's kingdom, and there she reigns supreme.  Thus is it her duty to make happy the lives of her husband and her family.  She should never do anything to make her husband feel uncomfortable, either mentally or physically.  She should never indulge in fits of temper, hysterics or other habits of ill-breeding.  

She should be equally attentive to her dress and personal appearance at home as she is in public.  And her manners should be just as pleasing when alone with her husband as when with him in company. 

She should never confide to any other any misunderstandings or petty quarrels between her and her husband. This would certainly be a breach of harmony in their union.

A wife should act openly and honorably in keeping household accounts.  She should keep exact account of her expenditures, and guard against any extravagances.  She should be economical and thrifty.  She should consult  the disposition and tastes of her husband, and endeavor to lead him to high and noble thoughts, lofty aims and temporal comfort.  

Respect for one another is as necessary as affection in a successful marriage. As is social equality.  Once husband and wife begin to entertain after marriage, they have social relations to maintain.  Being on different social levels may strain the marriage, as they will find they do not have much in common.

Intellectual sympathy is a must.  Man requires a woman who can make his place a home, while a woman requires a man of domestic taste.  Just as a woman would never marry an idler or a pleasure-seeking husband, nor should a man marry a woman without intelligence or good sense.  

Mutual trust and confidence are also requisites for a happy marriage.  There can be no love without trust.  Man and wife must also walk side by side on the same path of moral purpose and social usefulness.   

If a woman remains true to her heart and her husband, she will live a happy life.

So what is a true gentlewoman?  She is "an emanation from the heart subtilized by culture."


Manners for Women by Mrs. Humphry, a facsimile reproduction of an 1897 publication. Reprinted by Pryor Publications, Kent, England,1993.

Etiquette: Rules & Usages of the Best Society, reprinted by the Promotional Reprint Company, Ltd., Leicester, 1995.

What Jane Austen Ate and Charles Dickens Knew by Daniel Pool, New York, Simon & Schuster, 1993.

Similar books are available for purchase in our on-line bookstore in the non-fiction section.

Also see the Researching the Romance page of Literary Liaisons for more suggestions.


Editor's Note

As I write this, I am preparing for this year's Romance Writer's of America Conference.  It's that one time of year we dress up, dress down, learn, teach, laugh, cry, network, hide, listen, speak, support and fret, all in the space of four short (or should I say very long) days.  We arrive excited and go home inspired, no matter what our experience, for if it's one thing we learn at conference, it's that we're all in this together.  We are not alone. There are others suffering the same anxieties, the same depressions, while at the same time, experiencing the same joys and victories.  In a moment of insanity, we all decided to pursue a dream, and only we as writers can understand the frustrations and exaltations that go with it.  I applaud all of you who continue to pursue your dream, and am honored if we have played even a small part in your achievements.  I hope to see some of you at conference.

---Michelle Hoppe

Q&A Column

Q: Could you kindly let me know what defines a marmite sandwich and a fairy cake?  

Kim K.


A: Marmite is dark brown-colored savory spread made from the yeast that is a by-product of the brewing industry. It has a very strong, slightly salty flavor.  The most common use is as a spread on toast or in sandwiches. Note: it is generally spread very thinly because of its strong flavor-don't use it like jam. It has been used on buttered toast, crackers, and thinly-sliced rye-bread. People have been known to combine it with bananas and cheese. It's all a matter of individual taste.
Marmite is approved by the Vegetarian Society. During the brewing process, some brewers add isinglass (extracted from the swim bladder of a Sturgeon) to help clarify their beer. However, the yeast extract is removed before the finings are added, so yes it is vegetarian.

For the history of Marmite, visit their web site at:

Fairy cakes are a bit more obscure. I was only able to find a recipe. It is an English tradition, but beyond that, there is little history available.

Fairy Cakes 
75g (3oz) margarine 
75g (3oz) white sugar
100g (4oz) self raising flour
2 medium eggs
1. Place the margarine and sugar into a bowl, mix together well until margarine is soft and no sugar remains in bowl.
2. Place the eggs in a separate bowl, and beat well.
3. Add the beaten egg a little at a time to margarine and sugar, mix together well.
4. Sieve the flour into the mixture, add the salt and fold well.
5. Add enough milk to make mixture into a soft dropping consistency.
6. Spoon into greaseproof baking cases and bake in a pre-heated oven at (160°C), (325°F),(Gas Mark 3) for 20-25 minutes.
7. When golden remove from bake and place on wire tray to cool, do not remove from cases until cool.
Can be served plain, or topped with icing or chocolate. Often served plain with fresh cream and strawberry Jam.


Michelle Hoppe
President, Literary Liaisons


Historical Calendar of Events


Edith Wharton--American author

Edward Grey--British statesman

Aristide Briand--French statesman

Maurice Barres--French author

Claude Debussy--French composer

Frederick Delius--English composer

Edward German--English composer



Henry David Thoreau--American author



March 8--The first naval battle between ironclad ships occurs . The Confederate ironclad frigate Merrimac has sunk the Cumberland and defeated the Congress in Hampton Roads but is forced to withdraw March 9 after an engagement with the Union’s ironclad Monitor, with its revolving gun turret.

April 1--Union Army raiders steal the Confederate locomotive General in an effort to cut the rail lines, but Confederate soldiers give chase in the locomotive Texas and catch the raiders.

April 16--Congress abolishes slavery in the District of Columbia and in U.S. territories June 19. 

September 17--The Battle of Antietam in Maryland  is indecisive but wins Gen. Joseph Hooker his nickname “Fighting Joe”.  Camp followers of Hooker’s Massachusetts division are called “Hooker’s girls,” or simply “hookers”. 

September 22--The U.S. Emancipation Proclamation declares that as of January 1, 1863, all slaves held in rebelling territory are declared free.
In order to finance the war effort, Congress passes an Internal Revenue Act on July 1 which taxes beer at $1 per barrel and imposes license fees on tavern owners.

New York department store king A. T. Stewart contributes $100,000 to the Union cause and sells uniforms at cost to the Union Army.

Union forces destroy Confederate salt works on Chesapeake Bay.

The U.S. Navy abolishes its rum ration through the influence of Rear Admiral Andrew Hull Foote, who has made his ship the first in the Navy to stop issuing rum rations. 

Congress creates an independent U.S. Department of Agriculture

London has decided not to recognize the Confederacy on which Britain depends for cotton in exchange for the grain exports from the North. 

The Illinois Central facilitates Union troop movements with its north-south line.

The First Regiment of South Carolina volunteers organized at Boston in November is the first U.S. regiment of ex-slaves. 

April 8--Britain and Spain withdraw their troops from Mexico when they learn that France’s Napoleon III intends to establish a Catholic Latin empire in Mexico. 

May 5--The Battle of Puebla ends in a slaughter of crack French troops by Mexican irregulars.

August 17--A Sioux uprising has begun in Minnesota under the leadership of Little Crow. The insurrection is suppressed, 306 tribesmen are sentenced to death, and 38 are hanged December 26 at Mankato.

September 10--Paraguay’s dictator Cárlos López dies. His son Francisco Solano López becomes president, and makes himself absolute dictator.

Chiricahua and Mimbreno Apaches led by Cochise hold Apache Pass with 500 warriors against 3,000 California volunteers until forced out by artillery fire. The aged Mangas Coloradas is captured and killed, and Cochise leads his followers deep into the Dragoon Mountains from which he continues raids that will terrorize white settlers until 1871.

Monaco sells Menton and Roquebrune to France.

Otto Bismarck becomes Prime Minister of Russia.

King Otto I of Greece resigns after a military revolt.

Chinese forces led by U.S. military adventurer Frederick Townsend Ward win victories over the Taiping rebels, but Ward is mortally wounded September 20 at age 31.



The Arts

"Lola de Valence" by Edouard Manet

"La Musique aux Tuileries" by Edouard Manet

"The Honeymoon" by Moritz von Schwind

"Bain Turque" by Ingres

"Potato Planters" by Jean Francois Millet

"Cotopaxi" by Frederic E. Church


The Holy Roman Empire by James Bryce

First Principles by Herbert Spencer


Fathers and Sons by Ivan Turgenev

Salammbo by Gustav Flaubert

Les Miserables by Victor Hugo

His Book by Artemus Ward

Goblin Market and Other Poems by Christina Georgina Rosetti

East Lynne or The Elopement, an adaptation of the novel by Ellen Price Wood premieres April 21 in Boston.

Mazeppa premieres June 16 and causes a sensation when Adah Isaacs Menken appears strapped half nude to a horse in a melodramatic adaptation of Byron's poem.


"Perpetuum Mobile" and "Motor Waltz" by Johann Strauss


Beatrice et Benedict with music by Hector Berlioz and libretto from Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing premieres August 9 in Baden-Baden

La Forza del Destino by Giuseppe Verdi premieres November 10 in St. Petersburg

Popular songs:

"The Battle Hymn of the Republic" with lyrics by Juila Ward Howe

"We Are Coming, Father Abraham 300,000 More" by Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore

"We've a Million in the Field" by Stephen Foster

"The Bonnie Blue Flag" by Harry B. McCarthy 


Daily Life

Sarah Bernhardt debuts in Racine's Iphigenie en Aulide.

The Albert Memorial, designed by Gilbert Scott, was completed in London.

Swiss humanist Jean Henri Dunant proposes in his book "Souvenir de Solferino" the foundation of an international voluntary relief organization--the Red Cross.

The English cricket team tours Australia for the first time.

“Taps” is composed early in July by Army of the Potomac chief of staff Gen. Daniel Butterfield, who writes the notes for the bugle call at Harrison’s Landing in Virginia. Butterfield has written the bugle call to be played at lights out and at funerals.

England’s Lancashire textile mills shut down as they run out of Southern lint from which they have been cut off by the Civil War.

British crops fail and hunger is widespread, especially since thousands of mill hands have been thrown out of work by a cotton famine.

The first Monte Carlo gambling casino opens in Monaco under the direction of the former manager of the casino at Bad Hamburg.

U.S. Congress prohibits distillation of alcohol without a federal license but “moonshiners” continue to make whiskey.

The Homestead Act voted by Congress May 20 declares that any U.S. citizen, or any alien intending to become a citizen, may have 160 acres of Western lands absolutely free (except for a $10 registration fee) provided he make certain improvements and live on the tract for 5 years. 

The Morrill Land-Grant Act voted by Congress July 2 gives the states 11 million acres of federal lands to sell to start U.S. land-grant colleges for the scientific education of farmers and mechanics.

The U.S. Produce Exchange is organized at New York.

English African explorer John Speke confirms that Lake Victoria is the source of the Nile—the world’s longest river.

A second London Great International Exhibition includes a display of Japanese arts and crafts that stir demand for Japanese silks, prints, porcelains, bronzes, lacquerware, and bric-a-brac.

Gulder’s mustard is introduced by New York entrepreneur Charles Gulder whose Elizabeth Street shop has easy access to sources of mustard seed, spices, and vinegar.



Crosse & Blackwell in England introduces canned soups.

Lion Foucault successfully measures the speed of light.

R.J. Gatling constructs a ten-barrel gun bearing his name.

Johann von Lamont discovers earth currents.

German botanist Julius Sachs demonstrates that starch is produced by photosynthesis.

The International Exhibition is held in London.

The world’s largest department store is erected in New York’s 10th Street by A. T. Stewart, who has employed James Bogardus to design the eight-story structure that is also the world’s largest building with a cast-iron front. It has elevators to make the upper floors accessible.

U.S. wool production will climb from 40 million pounds to 140 million in the war years as the nation’s woolen mills fill Union Army contracts and pay dividends of 10 to 40 percent.

“Local Asphyxia and Symmetrical Gangrene of the Extremities” by French physician P. Edouard Raynaud attributes the symptoms to an arrest of the passage of blood to the affected parts as a result of a spasm of the arterioles. Raynaud’s disease will prove to be one of childhood or early adulthood, affecting females more often than males.

New York industrialists Abram Stevens Hewitt and Edward Cooper of the iron-making firm Cooper, Hewitt fire up the first American open-hearth steel furnace.

Congress promises up to 100 million acres of federal lands to the Union Pacific, the Central Pacific, and other railroads that will connect the Mississippi with the Gulf and Pacific coasts.

Union Pacific Railroad builders receive authority from Congress July 1 to take the timber, stone, and other material they need from public lands along the right of way they have been granted.

The freighting firm Russell, Majors and Waddell has gone bankrupt financing the Pony Express that Western Union put out of business in 1861 with its telegraph. Missouri entrepreneur Ben Holladay buys the firm at public auction in March and thus acquires the Central Overland, California, and Pikes Peak Express with its government contract for hauling overland mail between Missouri and the Pacific Coast, a contract that will soon be worth more than $1 million per year in federal subsidies.


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