Literary Links

July/August 2002


Good News and Announcements

New Publication Available!--Michelle Jean Hoppe will be selling her research guide, Researching the British Historical--The Victorian Era, at the Moonlight Madness bazaar at the RWA conference in Denver on July 18, 2002.  Stop by her booth to see this 240-page comprehensive guide on everything Victorian. Copies are $19.95 each.

RWA National Conference--July 17-July 20, 2002--RWA 22nd Annual National Conference in Denver, CO at the Adams Mark Hotel. Join RWA for Writing in the Rockies. If you can't make the entire conference, be sure to stop in for the Literacy Autographing and meet your favorite authors on Wednesday, July 17, 2002 from 5:30 to 8:30 p.m. All proceeds go to literacy foundations. This event is open to the public, so tell all your friends.  For more information, see the RWA National web site at

Fire & Ice Contest--July 19, 2002--The Chicago-North Chapter of RWA will announce the winners of their fourth annual Fire & Ice contest at the RWA National conference this evening. Stay tuned to the Chicago-North web site to find out who wins! Click Here!

Golden Pen Contest--July 18, 2002--The Golden Network Chapter of RWA will announce the winners of their Golden Pen Contest at the RWA National conference this evening. At that time, the Golden Network will also be awarding its newly-published authors their Alumni status certificates. 


New On Literary Liaisons

There are many new additions to Literary Liaisons. After reading about them below, check them out on the web site.





British English A to Zed by Norman W. Schur

Consuming Angels: Advertising and Victorian Women by Lori Anne Loeb

The Houses of Parliament: History, Art and Architecture by Christine Riding and Jacqueline Riding

The Victorian Underworld by Donald Thomas

Featured Title

British English A to Zed by Norman W. Schur

The Video Library

From Hell


Researching the Romance


British English A to Zed by Norman W. Schur

Consuming Angels: Advertising and Victorian Women by Lori Anne Loeb

The Houses of Parliament: History, Art and Architecture by Christine Riding and Jacqueline Riding

Victorian Illustrated Books: The Heyday of Wood-Engraving, 1850-1870 by Paul Goldman

The Victorian Underworld by Donald Thomas


Writers' Resources Online


Renaissance Secrets

The London House

Letters of a Victorian Lady

The Ragged School Museum

The Metropolitan Police--A History

The Victorian Education

Feature Article 

Titles and Forms of Address

by Michelle Jean Hoppe


For the outsider, one of the most confusing areas in British Society is the peerage and how to properly address them.  We'll start here with a brief overview of the peerage, then discuss some of the rules associated with their titles.  To make this easier to understand, we'll create an imaginary family--the Duke of Strathmore, with the family name of Jones.

The peerage has five descending grades, and five classes within each grade.  The grades are Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount and Baron.  All peers have a family name as well as a title.  In lower ranks, these are often the same.  Sons and daughters use the family name, except for eldest sons of dukes, marquesses and earls.  Almost all of these three peerages also have lesser titles, which are conferred upon their eldest son as a courtesy title.  

The five classes are Dowager (earliest surviving widow), 

Territorial titles are those where the title is taken from the name of a place.  All dukedoms are territorial titles.  They are never taken from the family name.  Formally, they are the Duke and Duchess of Strathmore.  In conversation, they would be addressed as His Grace and Her Grace, or Your Grace.  The same rules for addressing the duke's wife apply to addressing the Dowager Duchess.  Eldest sons of dukes take the highest courtesy title from their father (usually Marquess in the case of a dukedom), with their family sharing all the privileges of the courtesy title.  Daughters and younger sons bear the title 'Lord' or 'Lady' with their Christian and family names.  A daughter then, would be Lady Margaret Jones. In conversation, daughter and sons are addressed by 'Lord' or 'Lady' and their Christian name--never the family name.  Wives of younger sons are addressed using the husband's Christian name--Lady John Jones.  Children of younger sons are addressed as Mr. or Miss.  Married daughters take their husband's title, unless it is a lesser title, in which case she retains her own title with her Christian name and new family name. Children of daughters of duke receive no titles or distinctions of any sort through their mother.

The title of Marquess (also Marquis), is generally taken from the name of a place.  The Marquess and Marchioness are addressed as Lord and Lady in speech, with their title--Lord Nottingham, for example. The same rules apply for Dowagers (retaining title privileges), eldest sons (using courtesy title), and daughters and younger sons (Lord or Lady with Christian name and family name.) Also, wives of younger sons use their husband's Christian and family names in their title, preceded by 'Lady.'  The children of younger sons and daughters have no distinction of any sort.  The same rules of rank apply for married daughters as those of the dukedom.

The grade of Earl and Countess is sometimes taken from a territorial name, and sometimes from a family name.  In cases where it is territorial, the preposition 'of' is generally used, and in family names, it is not.  Earls and Countesses are addressed as Lord and Lady in speech.  The same rules as above apply to Dowagers, eldest sons, and daughters.  Younger sons, however, are referred to as 'Honourable,' but only in letter writing.  In speech, they are Mr. William Jones, for example.  Children of younger sons and daughters have no titles or distinctions of any sort.  The same rules apply for married daughters as above. 

The title of Viscount and Viscountess can be territorial or taken from a name.  But in no case is the preposition 'of' used between the style and the title. Thus, it is always Viscount Jones or Viscount Hereford, not the Viscount of Hereford.  They are addressed as Lord and Lady in speech. Dowager rules are the same as above.  There are no longer courtesy titles for eldest sons, however.  They are merely The Honourable, in writing, with wives sharing the title.  The same rules as for earls apply tp younger sons and their wives. Daughters all bear the title 'Honourable,' and upon marriage keeps her title only if marrying someone of lower rank. Children of sons and daughters have no distinction of any sort.

The title of Baron and Baroness is sometimes territorial and sometimes taken from the family name, and sometimes from other sources entirely.  They are addressed Lord and Lady in speech, but Baronesses in their own right are sometimes called by this title.  All children are referred to as 'Honourable.'  The same rules apply as earls for younger sons and their wives.  Again, married daughters keep their title only if marrying below their rank. Children of sons and daughters have no distinction of their own.

There are more ranks below peerage--too many to go into here.  But just a few general notes on the peerage.  Life peers and peeresses can not be handed down.  They end when the person upon whom it is conferred passes away.  Life peers rank with hereditary barons and baronesses according to the day of their creation.  Wives of life peers take the title of Lady, and their children are 'The Honourable.'  

Some baronies and a few earldoms descend in the female line, but very few.  

Husbands of peeresses in their own right take no style or dignity from their wives.  Their children, however, are in all respects peers as if the peerage were held by their father. Husbands and children of peers' daughters take no distinction whatsoever.  

Sources: Titles and Forms of Address by Arminger, A&C Black, 1966.

Check out our on-line bookstore in the non-fiction section for similar references.

Also see the Researching the Romance page of Literary Liaisons for more suggestions.


Editor's Note

Well, it seems as if all these years of persistence in my research have finally paid off.  An idea has been flitting through my mind for the last few years, but never come to fruition.  I'm happy to say, that I finally took my mind off 'flitting' and set it to 'working'. The end result is a comprehensive 125-page research guide to the British Historical.  My first effort focuses on the Victorian Era--my first love.  This guide gives an overview on research techniques, short articles on more than twenty-five subjects, detailed bibliographies for each, and two time lines--one arranged by date, and another by year.  In other words, it contains almost everything you need to start plotting and researching your historical novel. It will debut at the RWA conference in Denver at the Moonlight Madness Bazaar.  After that, the guide will be available through our web site.  Ordering information will be forthcoming after conference.  I'm really excited about this project, and so is my family, because now that it's completed (at least the first draft), I finally get to spend more time with them.  See you in Denver!

---Michelle Hoppe

President, Literary Liaisons, Ltd.

Q&A Column

Q:  I wonder if you can help me please. Later in the year I am marrying a Canadian. I have been thinking of icing for the cake and like the idea of having the Maple leaf of Canada and the Rose of England for decoration. Could you please tell me what is the traditional Rose of England? Is it the Tudor rose and what colour is it?

Thanking you,
Noreen C. 

A:  The traditional symbol of England is the Tudor rose, a symbol of British royalty since the houses of York and Lancaster united. The white rose of medieval England was the Rosa alba, or the York rose. The Lancaster rose was red. The white York rose imposed upon a larger red York rose, each with five petals, has been a symbol of English Heraldry since its inception. 
For an example of how the symbol might look in an art rendering, visit the home page of the Tudor History Web Ring. The rose is part of the logo.
How nice that these colors match exactly those of the Canadian Maple Leaf! Congratulations on your wedding, and best wishes on your new life together.

Michelle Hoppe
President, Literary Liaisons

Historical Calendar of Events



Stefan George--German poet

Maxim Gorky--Russian author

Granville Bantock--English composer

Max von Schillings--German composer and conductor

Robert Millikan--U.S. physicist

R.F. Scott--English Antarctic explorer

J.L. Garvin--English journalist

Harold Harmsworth, Lord Rothermere, English newspaper propietor




Adalbert Stifter--Austrian novelist

Gioacchino Rossini--Italian composer



U.S. President Johnson is impeached for violating Tenure-of-Office Act but acquitted by the Senate.

Benjamin Disraeli becomes British Prime Minister but resigns the same year.  William Gladstone replaces him.

Prussia confiscates territory of the King of Hanover.

Queen Isabella II of Spain is deposed in a revolution.  She flees to France.

Ulysses S. Grant is elected President of the United States.

U.S. business will use the “due process” clause in the 14th Amendment to resist government intervention.

July 28--The U.S. ratifies the Furteenth Amendment to the Constitution, proclaiming that all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. 

August 12--U.S. military authorities force Navajo chiefs to sign a treaty agreeing to live on reservations and cease opposition to whites. The treaty establishes a 3.5 million-acre reservation within the Navajo Nation’s old domains. The Navajo population has declined from 10,000 to 8,000 during 5 years of military internment.

June 10--Serbian prince Michael III Obrenovic is assassinated outside Belgrade. He is succeeded by his cousin Milan, 13, who will gain full independence for Serbia.

April 10--An Anglo-Indian force under Sir Robert Napier defeats Ethiopian emperor Theodore in the Battle of Arogee. Theodore commits suicide, the British reach Magdala April 13, and they free traders, missionaries, and envoys imprisoned since 1864. Ethiopia falls into anarchy as a result.  Napier is created first Baron Napier of Magdala by Queen Victoria.

Basutoland is annexed by the British following defeat of the Basutos by the Orange Free State. 

Congress enacts an Eight-Hour Law for U.S. government laborers but in private industry most laborers work 10 to 12 hours per day.


The Arts


"L 'Orchestre" by Degas

"The Skaters" by Renoir

"Zola" by Edouard Manet

"Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains" by Albert Bierstadt


Aesthetic Studies by Georg Brandes

A Constitutional View of the War Between the States by A.H. Stephens

Chambers's Encyclopaedia is published in ten volumes.


The Idiot by Dostoevsky

Little Women by Louisa May Alcott

The Moonstone by Wilkie Collins

"The Ring and the Book" by Robert Browning

"Verses on Various Occasions" by John Henry Newman

The Stage:

"Diary of a Scoundrel" or "Enough Stupidity for Every Wise Man" by Aleksander Ostrovsky


Mefistofele by Arrigo Boito debuts March 5 at Milan's Teatro alla Scala

Die Meistersinger von Numberg by Richard Wagner debuts June 21 at Munich


"Symphony No. 1 in G Minor" (Winter Dreams) by Peter Tchaikovsky

Tales of the Vienna Woods by Johann Strauss

"O Little Town of Bethlemhem" by Philadelphia organist Lewis H. Redner

Popular songs:

"Sweet By and By" by Joseph P. Webster, lyrics by S. Fillmore

"The Brahms Lullaby" is published in Berlin.  Mrs. Natalie Macfarren will write the English lyrics.



Daily Life


Austrian schools are freed from Church control.

The game of badminton is devised at the Duke of Beaufort's residence, Badminton Hall, Gloucestershire.

The earliest recorded bicycle race takes place at the Parc de St. Cloud, Paris.

The first professional U.S. baseball club, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, are founded. They introduce uniforms this same year.

The All-England Croquet Club founded at Wimbledon holds its first championship matches.

The first regular Trades Union Congress is held at Manchester, England.

Whitaker's Almanack appears in England.

The Atlanta Constitution is founded as a morning daily by Colonel Carey W. Styles.

U.S. wheat prices fall to 67¢ a bushel, down from a wartime high of $4 and a postwar peak of $1.50. 

The Crimean War and Civil War have stimulated production of California wheat, which is well suited to shipment overseas. 

Grape phylloxera (plant lice) from the United States begin to ruin European vineyards. Roots from New York State vineyards will be used to revive the European industry.

The Louisville Courier-Journal is created by a merger of two Kentucky newspapers.  It is under the editorship of Henry Watterson.

The World Almanac is published for the first time. The Almanac has 12 pages of advertising.  Annual publication will end in 1876, but World publisher Joseph Pulitzer will revive the Almanac in 1886 and it will appear every year thereafter.

October 18--La Prensa begins publication at Buenos Aires by Argentine publisher Ottavio Paz.

N. W. Ayer & Son, an advertising firm set up to represent farm journals and the religious weekly National Baptist, is founded by Philadelphia advertising solicitor Wayland Ayer

J. Walter Thompson has its beginnings as U.S. advertising pioneer James Walter Thompson persuades publishers of magazines such as Godey’s Ladies Book to let him sell space in all the magazines as if they were one unit.

Rand McNally & Co. is founded by Chicago printer William Rand and his former apprentice Irish-American printer Andrew McNally. Specializing initially in passenger tickets, timetables, and related print jobs, Rand McNally will publish its first map in 1872 when it issues a Railway Guide.

Metropolitan Life Insurance is founded at New York by a reorganization of National Travelers Insurance.

Philadelphia’s Strawbridge & Clothier dry goods emporium opens at 8th and Market streets.

Salt Lake City’s Z.C.M.I. (Zion’s Cooperative Mercantile Institution) opens under the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Mormons are expected to trade at the new church-owned store, which will drive most “gentile” merchants out of the Utah Territory.

Earthquakes strike Ecuador and Peru in mid-August, killing 25,000.

Americans observe Memorial Day (Decoration Day) for the first time May 30. The holiday commemorates the Union dead of the Civil War.



George Street designs the Law Courts of London.

A skeleton of Cro-Magnon man from the Upper Paleolithic Age is found in France by Louis Lartet.

The meat-packing factory of P. D. Armour opens in Chicago.

Atchison Associates is formed in September to build the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad.

Tabasco sauce, created a sauce from crushed, aged red peppers, vinegar, and salt, is formulated Edmund McIlhenny of Avery Island off Louisiana’s Gulf Coast.

A patent for a typewriter is issued to Christopher Sholes, Carlos G. Glidden, and Samuel W. Soule.

Amateur English astronomer Joseph Normann Cockyer discovers helium in the spectrum of the sun’s atmosphere.

The U.S. Government adopts a standard system of screw threads established by Philadelphia machine-tool maker William Sellers.

New Jersey Steel and Iron, owned by Cooper Hewitt, builds the first U.S. open hearth steel furnace at Trenton.

Boston inventor William H. Remington patents a process for electroplating with nickel.

English metallurgist Robert Forester Mushet invents tungsten steel, which is much harder than ordinary steel.

A refrigerated railcar with metal tanks along its sides is patented by Detroit inventor William Davis. The tanks are filled from the top with cracked ice.

A new mechanical cooler for English trains permits quick-cooled milk to be delivered by rail in new metal containers to cities such as London, Liverpool, Manchester, and Glasgow, making the milk safer than milk from cows kept in town sheds.

Claus Spreckels of San Francisco patents a sugar-refining method that takes just 8 hours instead of the usual 3 weeks.

The first U.S. production of compressed yeast begins at Cincinnati by Gaff, Fleischmann & Co., formed by Charles Fleischmann of Austria-Hungary, his brother Maximilian, and Cincinnati yeast maker James F. Gaff.

The first regularly scheduled U.S. dining car goes into service on the Chicago-Alton Railroad. George M. Pullman’s Delmonico is named for the New York restaurant.

The Westinghouse air brake devised by U.S. inventor George Westinghouse will permit development of modern rail travel.

An automatic railway “knuckle” coupler patented by former Confederate Army major Eli Hamilton Janney, hooks upon impact and replaces the link-and-pin coupler that endangers the fingers and the lives of brakemen. Janney’s coupler prevents excess sway of railcars and will become standard railway equipment in 1888.

Coil and elliptic railroad car springs invented by U.S. engineer Aaron French, make rail travel more comfortable.

A bridge spans the Mississippi River at Quincy, Ill., through the efforts of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy boss James Frederick Joy.


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