Literary Links

September/October 2000


Good News and Announcements

Michelle Hoppe, Literary Liaisons president, is pleased to announce that she received the Service Award from The Golden Network Chapter of RWA this year's past service as Vice President and Webmaster. 

Favorite Book of the Year--Don't forget to vote for your favorite romance book of 2000. See the RWA National web site for details.

Golden Heart Changes--If you were thinking about entering your finished manuscript in the RWA Golden Heart Contest this year, you'd better take a look at the new rules.  There are many changes afoot!  Check them out at the RWA National web site.


New On Literary Liaisons

There are many new additions to Literary Liaisons. After reading about them below, check them out on the web site.



Selected works of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle



Answers to Questions About Old Jewelry 1840-1950 by C. Jeanenne Bell

The Book of Positive Quotations by John Cook

The First Five Pages: A Writer's Guide to Staying Out of the Rejection Pile by Noah Lukeman

Hen Frigates: Passion and Peril, Nineteenth Century Women at Sea by Joan Druett

She Captains: Heroines and Hellions of the Sea by Joan Druett

Victorian Periodicals and Victorian Society, edited by J.D. Vann and R.T. VanArsdel

The Writer's Guide to Character Traits by Linda N. Edelstein, Ph.D.

Featured Title

Wild Women by Autumn Stephens

RWA Chapters On-line

Heart of Dixie

Lowcountry RWA

Researching the Romance

Answers to Questions About Old Jewelry 1840-1950 by C. Jeanenne Bell

The Book of Positive Quotations by John Cook

The First Five Pages: A Writer's Guide to Staying Out of the Rejection Pile by Noah Lukeman

Hen Frigates: Passion and Peril, Nineteenth Century Women at Sea by Joan Druett

She Captains: Heroines and Hellions of the Sea by Joan Druett

Victorian Periodicals and Victorian Society, edited by J.D. Vann and R.T. VanArsdel

The Writer's Guide to Character Traits by Linda N. Edelstein, Ph.D.


Writers' Resources Online


Avid Press

Brit Speak

International Museum of the Horse

Kim's Famous Love Letters

Literary Links and Charms

Queen Victoria: Grandmother of Europe


Feature Article 

MANNERS FOR MEN--Part One--As a Single Man

by Michelle Hoppe

I have heard it said that a title does not make a gentleman, but rather his manners. Truthfully, any titled male is a gentleman, but that does not necessarily means he acts appropriately. And there are those of the lowest birth who are the truest of gentlemen.

So what exactly is a gentleman?

A true gentleman is true to himself, is of moral strength and is thoughtful of others. He regards the rights and feelings of others, sometimes at his own expense. So how does this translate into manners? Let's start at the beginning....


Parents set the first examples for their children. Children learn what they observe at home. Therefore, a house filled with humor and contentment will raise a happy child. A house filled with slander and fault-finding will negate any lessons in etiquette the parent is trying to teach.

Courtesy and politeness form a solid basis for a future gentleman, and should be practiced as well as taught.

These manners, if learned properly, are carried into the school years. It is in school that boys begin to also learn the spirit of sportsmanship. A gentleman loses with grace, does not complain, and does not cheat.



An introduction is regarded as a social endorsement, and must be mutually agreeable between the parties being introduced. A gentleman never introduces himself to a lady. Only after she has granted permission can a mutual friend introduce them. The proper form of introduction is to present the gentleman to the lady. The person doing the introduction bows to the lady and says, "Miss Jones, allow me to introduce you to Mr. Smith." They both bow slightly and the gentleman opens conversation. A gentleman is careful about the character of any person he introduces to friends.

In the Street

A gentleman's duty is always to his lady. He keeps to the curb side of the walk to protect her from the street, and steps aside for any other ladies who may approach them. In crowds, he may guide her with a hand to the shoulder, but never to the waist.

In meeting an acquaintance, the gentleman nods for a male friend, but tips his hat for a man of higher distinction. He always raises his hat for a lady. The right of acknowledgement rests with the lady, however, and a gentleman waits for the lady to make the first move. The well-mannered man never puts out his hand in greeting unless the lady extends hers. Again, he defers to the lady to act first.

Whistling and singing are considered in poor taste on city streets, although allowed on the quiet country road. A gentleman never walks with his hands in his pockets.


A good education is a sound basis for carrying on conversation. A gentleman should be able to talk on a variety of subjects, although he should never use vulgarisms in speech. Simplicity and terseness are the characteristics of a highly-cultivated person. A gentleman should also be a good listener, even if the talker is prolific. A gentleman conceals his dislikes and disgusts.

Compliments are encouraged, but only if they are sincere. Flattery should be avoided at all costs. Slang is considered vulgar, and should never be used. Scandal is the least excusable of all conversational vulgarities. Interruption of speech is also a sin against good breeding. To show interest in the concerns of others is very complimentary, and should be practiced in conversation. Finally, a gentleman never mentions private matters in public or mixed assembly.

Dinner Parties and Receptions

A gentleman is obliged to accept any invitation he receives, unless previously engaged. If he can not attend a function, he should inform the hostess as soon as possible. It is in poor manners to decline once an invitation has been accepted, especially the day of the event. A gentleman must not wear gloves to a dinner party. He has a grace of fifteen minutes past the invited time to arrive, although arriving too early is more pardonable than arriving too late.

The servant who admits him takes his overcoat and hat. Should a lady be with him, he accompanies her upstairs and she enters the room slightly in front of him. The first person a gentleman greets upon entering the drawing room is the hostess. She introduces him to anyone in the party he does not know. She will then assign him a lady to escort into dinner, and he must make small talk with her until dinner is announced.

A gentleman offers his lady the arm that will place her on the wall side of the staircase, if there is one. If not, he offers his right arm to his lady. Once in the dining room, he assists the lady into her seat, which is to his right. He must maintain conversation throughout the dinner, no matter how hungry he is. The wineglass is never drained at a draught in a party, nor is it polite to eat too quickly or noisily. Thanking the servers may be done in moderation.

Once dinner is over, the gentleman nearest the door opens it for the ladies and stands by it until they have departed the room. The gentlemen leave the dining room together after conversation, unless the host grants a man the permission to join the ladies by himself. The gentleman of highest distinction leaves first, and the host last. Once tea is passed around in the drawing room, the gentlemen take the empty cups from the ladies and place them in a safe spot. If a lady rises to sing or play the piano, the gentleman nearest the piano escorts her and arranges her music.

The elders of the party make the first departure, unless a younger gentleman has a pressing engagement, like escorting a young lady to a ball. A guest never leaves a party without saying good-night to his host and hostess.

In A Carriage

A man offers his right hand to the senior member of the party and walks her to the carriage, then opens the door with his left hand. He offers his arm to each lady in turn, protecting them from the elements as necessary. If he is not joining them, he closes the door and gives the orders to the footman or coachman. He then raises his hat as they drive away. If he joins them, he always takes the backward facing seat, unless he is invited to share the seat facing the horses. He should never raise or lower the windows unless invited to do so.

On Horseback

If a gentleman is riding alone, he must not gallop noisily past a lady, so as not to startle her horse. In accompanying a lady, a gentleman keeps to her right, whether in town or on country roads. In a meet of hounds, a gentleman, when approaching ladies in a carriage, should not linger on a fidgety horse, as he may override the hounds. When a gentleman assists a lady onto horseback, he takes her left foot in his right hand, and when she springs, he helps her to the saddle. He then adjusts her left foot in the stirrup and arranges her habit for her.

This is just a sampling of the strict code of behavior a man must follow in order to be considered a true gentleman. This only touches on the surface, and covers behavior in general social situations. But what happens when the gentleman wants to seriously court a lady? Stay tuned for part two. 

Next Issue: Manners For Men--Part Two--Courtship and Marriage


Manners for Men by Mrs. Humphry, a facsimile reproduction of an 1897 publication. Reprinted by Pryor Publications, Kent, England,1993.

Etiquette: Rules & Usages of the Best Society, reprinted by the Promotional Reprint Company, Ltd., Leicester, 1995.

Similar books are available for purchase in our on-line bookstore in the non-fiction section.

Also see the Researching the Romance page of Literary Liaisons for more suggestions.

Editor's Note

Hopefully life has returned to normal in your households now that school is back in session.  Perhaps you can find more time to write now. Unless you're like me, and spend almost as much time at school as your children do.  There are a wide variety of additions to the Literary Liaisons web site--something for each of your individual tastes.  Take a look at our Feature Title--Wild Women: Crusaders, Curmudgeons and Completely Corsetless Ladies in the Otherwise Virtuous Victorian Era to see if you recognize your heroine.  Or check out the copyright protection site,  Enter a few key phrases of your own articles, and they will search the internet for occurrences of that phrase.  You may find your work on someone else's site.  If they haven't given you credit, it's time to ask for it.  Otherwise, I hope you benefit from this month's selections.  Remember to keep those suggestions for new sites and references coming in, as we're always adding to the site.

---Michelle Hoppe


FAQ Column

Q: From a reader: I've heard of several instances where someone has seen their work on another web site, but they're not listed as the author.  How can I protect myself from this happening?  

A: You can approach this from two directions.  You can conduct a search yourself on all search engines, using key phrases from your work.  Obviously, this is a time-consuming process.  Or there are special sites on the Internet specifically designed to do these searches.  Two of the more popular sites are and  They are really meant to keep an eye on the web for you.  After registering, you can type in a phrase, and they will notify you any time a page is uploaded to the Internet which contains that phrase.  It's meant more for this sort of notification, but you can use it to keep an eye on your own work.  Type in a phrase unique to your own on-line article or book, and they will let you know when a page is uploaded which contains your phrase.  You can then check out the page for yourself.  But before you do this, be prepared to either let it go or follow up.  Sometimes the offender will peacefully remove the infringement, and may even agree to pay you.  If not, you can take legal action.  Just be prepared for any consequences.

Historical Calendar of Events


William H. Taft, future President of the United States

Joseph Conrad, Anglo-Polish novelist

Joseph von Eichendorff, German poet

Max Klinger, German sculptor

Edward Elgar, English composer

Wilhelm Kienzl, Austrian composer

Emile Coue, French psychologist

Heinrich Hertz, German physicist

Ronald Ross, English physycian and specialist in tropical diseases

Robert Baden-Powell, British general and founder of the Boy Scouts movement



Alfred de Musset, French poet

Auguste Comte, French philosopher

Christian D. Rauch, German sculptor

Mikhail I. Glinka, Russian composer


James Buchanan is inaugurated as 15th President of the United States.

A financial and economic crisis runs throughout Europe, caused by speculation in U.S. railroad shares.

A new U.S. tariff act reduces import duties.

September 11--The Mountain Meadows Massacre in Utah Territory claims 135 California-bound emigrants.

Nicaragua’s president William Walker seizes overland transportation properties between the Atlantic and Pacific belonging to Cornelius van Derbilt’s Accessory Transit Co.

March 6--The Dred Scott decision, announced by Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney, enrages abolitionists and encourages slaveowners.

Congress abolishes shipping subsidies introduced in 1845 in response to Southern opposition.

Congress passes an Overland California Mail bill; John Butterfield of American Express organizes an Overland Mail Co. 

May 10--The Sepoy Mutiny that begins at Meerut ends control of India by the East India Company. British losses in the Mutiny  are small, but a massacre at Cawnpore July 15 takes the lives of 211 British women and children in one of several atrocities perpetrated by both sides. But few in India want to restore the Mughal Empire, the rebellion is disorganized, and loyal forces from the Punjab recapture Delhi September 20.

The Royal Navy destroys the Chinese fleet and Britain and France take Canton.

Parliament eases British game laws after years of harsh penalties that made anyone caught poaching liable to transportation to Australia for 7 years.

March 4--Afghan independence gains recognition  in the Treaty of Paris, ending the Anglo-Persion war.

The Irish Republican Brotherhood is founded.

Giuseppi Garibaldi forms the Italian National Association for unification of the country.

Czar Alexander II begins the emancipation of serfs in Russia.


The Arts

"The Gleaners" by Millet
"Niagara Falls" by Frederic E. Church

History of Civilization in England by Henry T. Buckle
Scenes From Clerical Life by George Eliot

The Virginians by William Makepeace Thackeray

Barchester Towers by Anthony Trollope

Little Dorrit by Charles Dickens

Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert

Tom Brown’s School Days by English jurist Thomas Hughes

"Santa Filomena" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow is a tribute to Crimean War nurse Florence Nightingale

The Poor of New York by Dion Boucicault at Wallack’s Theater, New York


Simon Boccanegra at Venice’s Teatro la Fenice, with music by Giuseppe Verdi

Popular songs:
Hymn "We Three Kings of Orient" by English-American clergyman John Henry Hopkins, Jr.

"Jingle Bells" by Boston composer James Pierpont


Daily Life
The National Portrait Gallery, London, opened.

The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, opened.

The Science Museum, South Kensington, is founded.

Charles Halle founded the Halle Concerts in Manchester.

The Alpine Club, London, is founded.

The Atlantic Monthly begins publication at Boston under the editorship of James Russell Lowell.

England’s Birmingham Post begins publication.

Financial panic strikes New York following the failure of Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Co. A severe depression ensues in which 4,932 business firms will fail.

The Matrimonial Causes Act is passed in Britain, which establishes that a husband’s responsibility as provider continues in perpetuity after a marriage is ended--it orders the world’s first alimony payments.

Sir Charles T. Newton discovers the remains of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus.

The first Currier & Ives prints are issued by New York lithographer Nathaniel Currier and his partner James Merritt Ives. 

The University of California is founded at Oakland, but classes will not begin until 1869.

Illinois State University is founded.

Marquette University is founded at Milwaukee.

The Universities of Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras are founded in India.

Cooper Institute is founded in New York’s Astor Place by Peter Cooper. The Institute will develop into Cooper Union and will carry on extensive programs of adult education

The Philadelphia Academy of Music designed by Napoleon Le Brun and C. Runge opens at the corner of Broad and Locust Streets

Baltimore’s Peabody Institute opens in Mount Vernon Place, established with a $1.4 million gift from financier George Peabody.

New York appoints landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted superintendent of the new Central Park, which is under construction.

The New York Infirmary for Women and Children opens on Florence Nightingale’s birthday May 12 under the direction of Elizabeth Blackwell, her younger sister Emily, and another woman doctor.

U.S. cities have higher death rates than any other places in the world. Tuberculosis is the big killer, causing roughly 400 deaths per 100,000 population.

The population of Chicago reaches 93,000, up from 4,100 in 1837.

Longchamp racetrack opens April 27 in the new Bois de Boulogne Park at Paris.

The first American Chess Congress opens at New York in the fall. Top honors go to New Orleans player Paul Charles Morphy.

The luxury steamship S.S. Central America en route from California with 3 tons of gold and nearly 600 passengers and crew founders in a September hurricane 200 miles east of Charleston. Some 420 perish, and the loss of the gold precipitates bank failures, contributing to the nation’s financial panic.

New York to San Francisco ocean freight rates drop to $10 per ton, down from as high as $60 during Gold Rush days, as an excess of shipping intensifies competition, making the industry unprofitable.



French chemist Louis Pasteur shows that a living organism causes the lactic fermentation that spoils milk. 

French physiologist Claude Bernard pioneers modern physiology.

The Harvard constructed at Brooklyn, N.Y., is the first U.S. racing shell, a six-oared rudderless craft 40 feet long, 26 inches wide, weighing 50 pounds.  It will be used in competition with other American colleges.

A nationwide celebration marks the linking by rail of New York and St. Louis.

The Pennsylvania Railroad extends its control through purchase and lease over the entire rail route between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. 

France passes a law to spur railway construction, guaranteeing interest payments on railroad company bonds. By the end of next year France will have 16,207 kilometers of railway line, up from 3,627 in 1851.

Venice gains a rail link to other European cities as the Milan-Venice railway opens.

American Civil engineer E.G. Otis installs the first safety elevator in the five-story china and glass emporium of E.G. Haughwout at the corner of Broadway and Broome Streets.

Michigan State College of Agriculture opens to offer the first state courses in scientific and practical agriculture.

The California grape and wine industries have their beginnings at Buena Vista in the Valley of the Moon near the Sonoma Mission where Count Agoston Haraszthy de Moksa plants Tokay, Zinfandel, and Shiras grape varieties from his native Hungary. 

The increase in U.S. literacy spurs demand for lighting, creating a shortage of whale oil.

John Deere produces steel plows at the rate of 10,000 per year.
Demand for Minneapolis whiter winter wheat flour begins in the East as a Minnesota Territory farmer ships a few barrels to New Hampshire in payment of a debt.

Commercial production of condensed milk begins at Burrville, Conn., where Borden has opened a condensing plant. The condensed milk, patented in 1855, is made from skim milk devoid of all fats and of certain necessary food factors. The product will contribute to rickets in young working-class children.

The aniline dye industry begins in England as W. H. Perkin and his father build a mauve dye works near Harrow.

Eddyville, Ky., steel-maker William Kelly patents a "pneumatic" steel-making process he invented in 1847.

The cant hook (peavey), invented on the Stillwater branch of Maine’s Penobscot River, multiplies the efficiency of a logger.

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